ag MON-KEMfiK, FAMILY.
The Nominative of the pronoun of the 2nd person singular is given once as bci-mi,
and once as ma-mi. The ma or ba is the Standard emphatic prefix ma.
I do not know if there is a feminine form for this person. Its existence under the
form otpka may be inferred from the plural phtaw.
The Demonstrative Pronouns which I have noted are te, tei, that, and mi, or
fttA, this. jfc is used as a definite article in the phrase lejawmm, the earthquake.
The Eelative Pronoun is u-iah, who.
Interrogative Pronouns are uet, u-iet, who ? and met, what ?
VEBBS.—The pronoun which is the suhject of a verh may either precede or follow
it. Thus, ne r*p, I strike: rip Maw, we strike. This pronoun is very often omitted
when the sense is evident from the context.
The Standard causal prefix pyn appears in Lyng-ngam as pan.
The words meaning * to he' are re, im, long, and mett. Like the Standard don,
im, corresponding to Synteng ems also means * to have'.
As in the Standard, the Present Tense is formed by using the bare root.
The Past Tense is formed in one of five ways, vig.,
1. By suffixing let, as in ong-let, said.
2. By suffixing lah-let, as in dih-lah-let> went.
3. By prefixing lah, and suffixing let, as in lah-ong-let, said.
4 By prefixing lah, as in lah-Jzyllei, asked.
5. By prefixing yn% (yng, ym), as in yn-nai> gave j yng-kheit, shook; ym-pait,
broke; yn-jai, fell.
There seems to be no difference in the use of these various forms. A good example
is s'ngu pyn*dai~let, lah-hir-let, dim-lab-let ha Jerang jong ju, (he) felt pity, ran, fell on
The particle of the Future is, as in the Standard, yn, but it is added to the
verb in a very peculiar way. If the root is a monosyllable, it is inserted into the
middle of the root, immediately after the first consonant. Thus, rip, strike; rynipt
win strike. If the root is a compound, it is inserted between the two members, as in pan-
yn-sop, will fill.
The Puture sometimes takes the form of the Present. Thus, ne wan-difhJ3 I will
go; phidw rip, you will strike or you strike. Apparently, also, the future with yn can
be used in the sense of the present, Thus, in the list of words (205), ne dynih is given
as the equivalent of cI go', the root meaning «to go' being dth.
The Infinitive has the same form as the Puture.
This formation of the Future and the Infinitive by the insertion of yn into the body
of the root is very interesting. Similar infixes occur in Malay, in the Nancowry dialect
ofKicobar^andthe Malacca aboriginal languages (see the introduction to the Mon-
We have seen that yn, prefixed, gives the force of the Past Tense. Here we may
note that the writer of the specimens seems to double the * of yn before a vowel. Thus
we have yn-nait gave, for yn-ait the root being m. So we have lyn-nang, let us eat,
from toy jat, for b-yn-ang; and (second specimen) dyn-no, to sell, probably for <ty*of
the Standard root being *fr. Another example of this form is probably re-ryn-naw,